Sorry to see you're having problems with the version of the SD Library on the Cloud Compiler.
I believe the problem you're seeing with the SD library is the same as the problem with the
Wire.h library. Both of these libraries have hardcoded pin numbers that override our board definition of pin numbers, which is why the Wire library is blacklisted for now. Our SD data logging example requires you to change those hardcoded pin numbers to work, which you can't do when using the Cloud Compiler.
We're aware of these issues and trying to pick the best way to fix them. In the meantime, we're also working to add some of the libraries suggested earlier in the thread. We will keep you posted!